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Biographical Dictionary - Coorow, Carnamah, Three Springs


Surname

Rosendo SALVADO

Born 1 March 1814 in Tuy, Galicia, Spain [252: page 1]
Entered the Benedictine Monastery of Saint Martin in Santiago de Compostela in Spain on 24 July 1828 [252: page 5]
At Saint Martin he studied rhetoric, logic, Latin, Greek, Hebrew, French, canon law, Scripture, history, philosophy and theology [252]
Due to his musical talent he received two years tuition from Padre Juan COPA, one of Spain's greatest musicians [252: page 10]
The Spanish revolution and subsequent religious persecution of 1835 resulted in the closure of the monastery [252: page 14]
After orders were given he left the monastery in 1835 and returned to live with his parents in Tuy [252: page 14]
He kept in touch with priest José SERRA, who was fortunate enough to find refuge at a monastery in Cava, Naples [252: page 15]
In 1838, after previous attempts, José SERRA was successful in finding a place for SALVADO at the Naples monastery [252: page 15]
Resumed his studies, which had been cut short in 1835, and studied so diligently he was ordained within five months [252: page 17]
Ordained into the Priesthood on 23 February 1839 at the nearby church in Norcera dei Pagani [252: page 17]
Shortly after being ordained he was sent to Rome for further study, and in Rome resided at the Monastery of St Callisto [252: page 17]
Returned to the monastery in Cava, Naples where he taught music and played the organ at ceremonies [252: page 18]
He and José SERRA, desirous of serving in a foreign mission, took a pilgrimage to Rome, arriving on 29 December 1844 [252]
On 14 January 1845 it was decided that they would be sent to "the huge and uncultivated mission fields of Australia" [252: page 20]
Prior to their departure himself and José SERRA were invited to an audience with Pope Gregory XVI on 5 June 1845 [252: page 21]
Departed London, England on the Elizabeth and arrived at Fremantle in the Swan River Colony on 8 January 1846 [252: page 23]
His intention was to improve the lives of the Aboriginal People of Western Australia and evangelise to them [252]
In February 1846 journeyed to James SCULLY's property at Bolgart and then to the wilderness of the Victoria Plains [252]
Camped near a water hole and after only contact from a distance successfully made peaceful contact with the Aboriginal People [252]
They were welcomed into the tribe and for three months resided and wandered with them over the Victoria Plains [252]
During this time grasped a firm understanding of the Aboriginal People including their way of life and thinking [252]
Returned to Perth where he performed a vocal and musical feat to raise funds as his superior couldn't supply any [252]
Purchased supplies and on deciding to move their camp the Aboriginal People led them to a place they called Nunga-Dunga [252]
Began his Mission, which became known as New Norcia [252]
His aim was to construct a self-supporting mission village and to implement his plan for the welfare of the Aboriginal People [252]
It was envisaged that the Mission could provide a stable centre for the settlement of Aboriginal People [252]
He wished to provide such settlement to improve their lives and as their traditional way of life was becoming unavailable [252]
With the help of the Aboriginal People he seeded and harvested crops and made tracks to Bindoon and Perth [252]
In 1847 took up 50 acres of freehold land and 1,000 acres of pastoral leasehold and obtained a flock of sheep [252]
By the end of 1847 the foundations for the mission had been laid and a dwelling and small Church had been constructed [252]
In later years both the freehold and leasehold land of the Mission was extensively increased [252]
By 1876 he had pastoral leases totalling over 260,000 acres [252] - which extended beyond the Victoria Plains as far as Carnamah [68]
     For years most of Carnamah was taken up in pastoral leases held by himself, James NAIRN and Duncan MACPHERSON [68]
Became an expert surveyor and cartographer and recorded all water sources using their Aboriginal names [252]
     It is believed his maps may be the only record of many Aboriginal names for springs and rock holes in the Carnamah district [--]
He envisioned purchasing land in trust for the Aboriginal People and setting them in villages where they could live harmoniously [252]
From 1849 to 1853 he was in Europe collecting funds and recruiting men for the Mission [252]
He was consecrated on 15 August 1849 thus becoming a Bishop of the Catholic Church of Western Australia [252]
Arrived back in the Swan River Colony / Western Australia on 15 August 1853 however had been appointed elsewhere [252]
In his absence the Mission had deteriorated and was being used as merely a property providing a source of income for Perth [252]
After constant persistence he was reappointed to the New Norcia Mission in 1857 and returned after an absence of eight years [252]
Worked to expand the mission and its land to enable the mission to prosper and be of the fullest benefit to the Aboriginal People [252]
In 1859 successfully had the Mission decreed independent from the Diocese of Perth who took much of the Mission's income [252]
At the same time he was appointed the Sole Superior of the New Norcia Mission; by 1859 the Mission boasted over 47 monks [252]
Also in 1859 the Mission became a Monastery and instead of getting overseas Monasteries to train men they were trained locally [252]
Set about building New Norcia "into a self-supporting village" starting with the building of a substantial stone chapel [252]
Native Cottages, storehouses, a blacksmith's shop and flourmill were built in addition to the Monastery which rose three stories [252]
In 1864 produce grown included 150 acres of wheat, 20 acres of barley and oats, 17 acres of hay, eight acres of vegetables, [252]
     two acres of beans and four acres of vines from which 200 gallons of wine was made each year [252]
     The Mission had 40 pigs, 100 dairy cattle and had 300 horses (horses were bred and exported to the British Army in India) [252]
In 1865 he became the owner of the Mission and its property, including all freehold and leasehold land [252]
Ran a total of 12,420 sheep in 1868, which produced 33,700 pounds of wool [252]
From 1867 to 1869 he was in Spain to gather further capital and men for the Mission [252]
The Mission eventually housed a School, Orphanage, Hospital, Library and homes for a number of Aboriginal families [252]
The Mission's industries spanned all spheres of agriculture and also varied from the making of wheels to haul timer and even soap [252]
Initially the Mission had worked around building up a large village of Aboriginal Christians in the Victoria Plains area [252]
As time passed the Mission evolved to take in many detribalised and part Aboriginal People from all over the Colony [252]
Foundation Member of the Victoria Plains Road Board in 1871 [5: 22-Jun-1934]
In 1884 he received a letter from Frank NAIRN written on behalf of his father James NAIRN of Claremont in Dongara [68]
     In the letter he offered a ten year old dark bay cart stallion, which was a sure foal getter, for sale at a price of £60 [68]
     NAIRN wished to sell the stallion as it had been in his herd long enough; it is not known if he or the Mission accepted the offer [68]
In 1885 he received a letter from James NAIRN of Dongara offering his Noolooloo Station for sale in exchange for £1000 [68]
     Noolooloo Station was situated in what later became the Carnamah-Winchester district and adjoined some of his leasehold [68]
     James NAIRN had written to him on hearing he was after more land, however he thankfully declined the offer [68]
Himself and Duncan MACPHERSON of Carnamah Station appear to have been well known to each other [68]
     In 1889 he received letters from Duncan about a hydrometer that was useful for testing the quality of water for livestock [68]
In 1898 under his instruction the Mission became known as "The Benedictine Community of New Norcia" [252]
Also in 1898 he transferred ownership of all property and land from his own name to The Benedictine Community of New Norcia [252]
On 30 November 1899 he departed for Rome where he was successful in appointing a new leader for the Mission and Monastery [252]
He passed away in Rome on 29 December 1900 [252]


Pastoral Leases held by Rosendo SALVADO in Carnamah and Winchester:
By 1875 had the following three pastoral leases in what much later became Carnamah and Winchester: [68]
     Lease A502 of 4,000 acres including Carun Spring (or Lease A1502?) [68]
     Lease A594 of 13,000 acres including Nawarango Rock Hole (later Lease A3678) [68]
     Lease A619 of 4,000 acres including Warrenwa Rock Hole [68]
In 1878 he still had the above 21,000 acres however had also acquired further leases in what later became Winchester: [68]
     Lease A2824 of 2,000 acres including Cungunago Spring [68]
     Lease A3527 of 13,600 acres including Kirkar Pool and Capomgura Swamp, with a shepherd's hut near Kirkar Pool [68]
     Lease A519 of 4,000 acres [68]
     Lease A3466 of 2,000 acres including Naigaba Spring and Swamp [68]
By 1878 had also taken out pastoral leases totalling 50,100 acres on the west side of the Yarra Yarra Lake: [68]
     Lease A3518 of 3,000 acres including Tatangoba Spring [68]
     Lease A3355 of 2,000 acres including Mallera Swamp and Punana Swamp [68]
     Lease A1358 of 2,000 acres including Tunda Spring and Pitotangaring Swamp [68]
     Lease A3457 of 2,700 acres including Marion Swamp and adjoining the westerly banks of the Yarra Yarra Lake [68]
     Lease A1376 of 2,000 acres including Cuitemper Spring [68]
     Lease A3456 of 2,400 acres and adjoining the westerly banks of the Yarra Yarra Lake [68]
     Lease A1357 of 4,000 acres including Timula Spring [68]
     Lease A1357 of 2,000 acres including Cuncano Spring [68]
     Lease A1359 of 30,000 acres including Blanchery Spring, Culguroo Spring, Carmindane Spring and Bunano Spring [68]
In 1878 his pastoral leases in what was to become the Carnamah district totalled 92,700 acres [68]
By 1881 he had given up much of his land in what is now Carnamah [68]
The only land he still had in 1881 east of the Yarra Yarra Lake was a new 14,400 acre lease including Kirkar Pool [68]
In 1881 he still had pastoral leases west of the Yarra Yarra Lake, however a great deal less than he had in 1878 [68]


Pastoral Leases held by Rosendo SALVADO in Coorow, Waddy Forest, Marchagee and Gunyidi:
In 1875 he also had 55,460 acres of pastoral leases in what later became Coorow and Waddy Forest: [68]
     Lease A618 of 10,000 acres including Walban Spring [68]
     Lease A503 of 4,000 acres including Turipa Spring [68]
     Lease A504 of 5,760 acres including Maralcutula Spring [68]
     Lease A506 of 35,700 acres including Pocain Maya Spring [68]
     Also the freehold owner of 40 acre blocks surrounding the springs Turipa and Maralcutula (Victoria Locations 879 and 880) [68]
     The freehold blocks were in the name of the Benedictine Community of New Norcia [44]
In 1875 had pastoral leases in what became the Marchagee and Gunyidi districts amounting to 46,100 acres: [68]
     Lease 9306 of 6,000 acres including Eganu Lake [68]
     Lease A649 of 11,600 acres (north east of Eganu Lake) [68]
     Lease A63 of 3,400 acres including Paigan Paigan Spring [68]
     Lease A1049 of 2,000 acres including Calecono Spring
     Lease A45 of 3,600 acres including Ytinich Spring
     Lease A42 of 3,600 acres including Dandy Rock Water Hole
     Lease A44 of 3,600 acres including Meelyah Spring
     Lease A832 of 2,000 acres including Perinya Spring
     Lease A833 of 2,000 acres including Mungerdargunyidie
     Lease A125 of 2,000 aces including Erinderino Well
     Also the freehold owners of 40 acre blocks surrounding the springs Ytinich, Meelyah and Erinderino [68]
By 1911 the Benedictine Community of New Norcia had 14 freehold blocks in what is now Coorow, Marchagee and Gunyidi [44]
     The 14 freehold blocks were Victoria Locations 167, 666, 797, 798, 841, 857, 879, 880, 915, 928, 939, 975, 1333 and 1446 [44]
     In most or all cases the freehold blocks varied in size from 40 to 100 acres and surrounded a well or waterhole [44]
By 1931 they had disposed of twelve of the freehold, the only two remaining being Victoria Locations 915 & 1466 (each 40 acres) [3]
     Victoria Location 915 in Marchagee/Gunyidi was sold to Arthur L. RAINS on 16 August 1946 [3]
     In 1961 Victoria Location 1466, also in Marchagee/Gunyidi was still owned by the Benedictine Community of New Norcia [3]
     Rates were paid for the 40 acre block to the Carnamah District Road Board / Carnamah Shire Council [3]


Reference:  Carnamah Historical Society & Museum and North Midlands Project, 'Rosendo Salvado' in Biographical Dictionary of Coorow, Carnamah and Three Springs, retrieved 21 August 2019 from www.carnamah.com.au  [ sources ]




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